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Wastewaters (WW) are important sources for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) into the environment. Hospital WW (HWW) contain higher loads of micro-pollutants and AMR markers than urban WW (UWW). Little is known about the long-term dynamics of H and U WW and the impact of their joined treatment on the general burden of AMR. Here, we characterized the resistome, microbiota and eco-exposome signature of 126 H and U WW samples treated separately for three years, and then mixed, over one year. Multi-variate analysis and machine learning revealed a robust signature for each WW with no significant variation over time before mixing, and once mixed, both WW closely resembled Urban signatures. We demonstrated a significant impact of pharmaceuticals and surfactants on the resistome and microbiota of H and U WW. Our results present considerable targets for AMR related risk assessment of WW.

Original publication




Journal article


Water Res X

Publication Date





AMR, Antimicrobial Resistance, ARB, Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, ARG, Antibiotic-Resistant Gene, Antimicrobial resistance, HWW, Hospital Wastewater, Hospital and urban wastewater, Hospital and urban wastewater eco-exposome, MGE, Mobile Genetic Element, Microbiota, Resistome (ARGs and MGEs), UWW, Urban Wastewater, WW signatures, WW, Wastewater