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Malaria is a major global health problem for which an effective vaccine is required urgently. Prime-boost vaccination regimes involving plasmid DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-encoding liver-stage malaria antigens have been shown to be powerfully immunogenic for T cells and capable of inducing partial protection against experimental malaria challenge in humans, manifested as a delay in time to patent parasitemia. Here, we report that substitution of plasmid DNA as the priming vector with a specific attenuated recombinant fowlpox virus, FP9, vaccine in such prime-boost regimes can elicit complete sterile protection that can last for 20 months. Protection at 20 months was associated with persisting memory but not effector T cell responses. The protective efficacy of various immunization regimes correlated with the magnitude of induced immune responses, supporting the strategy of maximizing durable T cell immunogenicity to develop more effective liver-stage vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date





4836 - 4841


Adult, Animals, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Fowlpox virus, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Immunization, Secondary, Immunoglobulin G, Immunologic Memory, Interferon-gamma, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Male, Middle Aged, Plasmids, Plasmodium falciparum, Protozoan Proteins, T-Lymphocytes, Vaccines, DNA, Vaccinia virus