Genetic epidemiology of dengue viruses in phase III trials of the CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine and implications for efficacy.
Rabaa MA., Girerd-Chambaz Y., Duong Thi Hue K., Vu Tuan T., Wills B., Bonaparte M., van der Vliet D., Langevin E., Cortes M., Zambrano B., Dunod C., Wartel-Tram A., Jackson N., Simmons CP.
This study defined the genetic epidemiology of dengue viruses (DENV) in two pivotal phase III trials of the tetravalent dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, and thereby enabled virus genotype-specific estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE). Envelope gene sequences (n = 661) from 11 DENV genotypes in 10 endemic countries provided a contemporaneous global snapshot of DENV population genetics and revealed high amino acid identity between the E genes of vaccine strains and wild-type viruses from trial participants, including at epitope sites targeted by virus neutralising human monoclonal antibodies. Post-hoc analysis of all CYD14/15 trial participants revealed a statistically significant genotype-level VE association within DENV-4, where efficacy was lowest against genotype I. In subgroup analysis of trial participants age 9-16 years, VE estimates appeared more balanced within each serotype, suggesting that genotype-level heterogeneity may be limited in older children. Post-licensure surveillance is needed to monitor vaccine performance against the backdrop of DENV sequence diversity and evolution.