Systems-wide analyses of mucosal immune responses to Helicobacter pylori at the interface between pathogenicity and symbiosis.
Kronsteiner B., Bassaganya-Riera J., Philipson C., Viladomiu M., Carbo A., Abedi V., Hontecillas R.
Helicobacter pylori is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota in over half of the human population of which 5-15% develop gastritis or gastric malignancies. Immune responses to H. pylori are characterized by mixed T helper cell, cytotoxic T cell and NK cell responses. The presence of Tregs is essential for the control of gastritis and together with regulatory CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes and immune-evasion strategies they enable life-long persistence of H. pylori. This H. pylori-induced regulatory environment might contribute to its cross-protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. Here we review host-microbe interactions, the development of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses and how the latter contribute to H. pylori's role as beneficial member of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, we present the integration of existing and new data into a computational/mathematical model and its use for the investigation of immunological mechanisms underlying initiation, progression and outcomes of H. pylori infection.