Geography Influences Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 Serological Response in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Multinational Analysis From the ICARUS-IBD Consortium.
Wong S-Y., Wellens J., Helmus D., Marlow L., Brann S., Martinez Pazos V., Weinberg A., Moran HR., McGregor C., Vermeire S., Watanabe K., Kamikozuru K., Ahuja V., Vermani S., Lindsay JO., Kingston A., Dutta U., Kaur H., Silverberg MS., Milgrom R., Chien Ng S., Mak JWY., Cadwell K., Thompson C., Colombel J-F., Satsangi J., ICARUS-IBD Consortium None.
BACKGROUND: Beyond systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there have been no direct studies of serological response to COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) across continents. In particular, there has been limited data from Asia, with no data reported from India. The ICARUS-IBD (International study of COVID-19 Antibody Response Under Sustained immunosuppression in IBD) consortium assessed serological response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with IBD in North America, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: The ICARUS-IBD study is a multicenter observational cohort study spanning sites in 7 countries. We report seroprevalence data from 2303 patients with IBD before COVID-19 vaccination between May 2020 and November 2021. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were analyzed. RESULTS: The highest and lowest SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike seropositivity rates were found in Asia (81.2% in Chandigarh and 57.9% in Delhi, India; and 0% in Hong Kong). By multivariable analysis, country (India: odds ratio [OR], 18.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.03-26.95; P < .0001; United Kingdom: OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.58-3.72; P < .0001; United States: OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.27-3.85; P = .005), male sex (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.07-1.99; P = .016), and diabetes (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.04-5.46; P = .039) conferred higher seropositivity rates. Biological therapies associated with lower seroprevalence (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.15-0.33; P < .0001). Multiple linear regression showed associations between anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid titers with medications (P < .0001) but not with country (P = .3841). CONCLUSIONS: While the effects of medications on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers in patients with IBD were consistent across sites, geographical location conferred the highest risk of susceptibility to serologically detectable SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over half of IBD patients in India were seropositive prior to vaccination. These insights can help to inform shielding advice, therapeutic choices, and vaccine strategies in IBD patients for COVID-19 and future viral challenges.