Transmission networks and population turnover of echovirus 30.
McWilliam Leitch EC., Bendig J., Cabrerizo M., Cardosa J., Hyypiä T., Ivanova OE., Kelly A., Kroes ACM., Lukashev A., MacAdam A., McMinn P., Roivainen M., Trallero G., Evans DJ., Simmonds P.
Globally, echovirus 30 (E30) is one of the most frequently identified enteroviruses and a major cause of meningitis. Despite its wide distribution, little is known about its transmission networks or the dynamics of its recombination and geographical spread. To address this, we have conducted an extensive molecular epidemiology and evolutionary study of E30 isolates collected over 8 years from a geographically wide sample base (11 European countries, Asia, and Australia). 3Dpol sequences fell into several distinct phylogenetic groups, interspersed with other species B serotypes, enabling E30 isolates to be classified into 38 recombinant forms (RFs). Substitutions in VP1 and 3Dpol regions occurred predominantly at synonymous sites (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, 0.05) with VP1 showing a rapid substitution rate of 8.3 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year. Recombination frequency was tightly correlated with VP1 divergence; viruses differing by evolutionary distances of >0.1 (or 6 years divergent evolution) almost invariably (>97%) had different 3Dpol groups. Frequencies of shared 3Dpol groups additionally correlated with geographical distances, with Europe and South Asia showing turnover of entirely distinct virus populations. Population turnover of E30 was characterized by repeated cycles of emergence, dominance, and disappearance of individual RFs over periods of 3 to 5 years, although the existence and nature of evolutionary selection underlying these population replacements remain unclear. The occurrence of frequent "sporadic" recombinants embedded within VP1 groupings of other RFs and the much greater number of 3Dpol groups than separately identifiable VP1 lineages suggest frequent recombination with an external diverse reservoir of non-E30 viruses.