Genomic evidence of yellow fever virus in Aedes scapularis, southeastern Brazil, 2016.
Cunha MS., Faria NR., Caleiro GS., Candido DS., Hill SC., Claro IM., da Costa AC., Nogueira JS., Maeda AY., da Silva FG., de Souza RP., Spinola R., Tubaki RM., de Menezes RMT., Abade L., Mucci LF., Timenetsky MDCST., Sabino E.
The southeastern region of Brazil has recently experienced the largest yellow fever disease outbreak in decades. Since July 2016 epizootic events were reported in São Paulo state's north region, where 787 Culicidae were captured as part of public health surveillance efforts and tested using real-time quantitative PCR. One Aedes scapularis pool collected in November 2016 in an agriculture area in Urupês city tested positive for YFV-RNA. Using a validated multiplex PCR approach we were able to recover a complete virus genome sequence from this pool. Phylogenetic analysis of the novel strain and publicly available data indicates that the belongs to the South American genotype 1 clade circulating in Sao Paulo state and is basal to the recent outbreak clade in southeast Brazil. Our findings highlight the need of additional studies, including vector competence studies, to disentangle the role of Aedes scapularis in yellow fever transmission in the Americas.