Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Flagella are important for eukaryote cell motility, including in sperm, and are vital for life cycle progression of many unicellular eukaryotic pathogens. The '9+2' axoneme in most motile flagella comprises nine outer doublet and two central-pair singlet microtubules. T-shaped radial spokes protrude from the outer doublets towards the central pair and are necessary for effective beating. We asked whether there were radial spoke adaptations associated with parasite lineage-specific properties in apicomplexans and trypanosomatids. Following an orthologue search for experimentally uncharacterised radial spoke proteins (RSPs), we identified and analysed RSP9. Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana have an extensive RSP complement, including two divergent RSP9 orthologues, necessary for flagellar beating and swimming. Detailed structural analysis showed that neither orthologue is needed for axoneme assembly in Leishmania. In contrast, Plasmodium has a reduced set of RSPs including a single RSP9 orthologue, deletion of which in Plasmodium berghei leads to failure of axoneme formation, failed male gamete release, greatly reduced fertilisation and inefficient life cycle progression in the mosquito. This indicates contrasting selection pressures on axoneme complexity, likely linked to the different mode of assembly of trypanosomatid versus Plasmodium flagella.

Original publication




Journal article


J Cell Sci

Publication Date





Plasmodium , Flagella, Motility, Radial spoke, Trypanosomatids, Male, Animals, Axoneme, Parasites, Microtubules, Seeds, Proteins, Flagella, Eukaryota, Plasmodium, Dyneins