Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vaccines have traditionally been designed to induce antibody responses and have been licensed on their capacity to induce high titers of circulating antibody to the pathogen. With our increased knowledge of host-pathogen interactions, it became apparent that induction of the cellular arm of the immune response is crucial to the efficacy of vaccines against intracellular pathogens and for providing appropriate help for antibody induction. Diverging strategies emerged that concentrate on developing candidate vaccines that solely induce either cellular or humoral responses. As most microbes reside at some point in the infectious cycle in the extracellular as well as intracellular space, and there is interplay between antibody and T cells, it is now apparent that both arms of immunity are essential to effectively control and eliminate the infection. It is, therefore, necessary to develop vaccines that can effectively induce a broad adaptive immune response. For vaccines targeted at diseases of the developing world, such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, it is imperative that these vaccines are simple to deliver and cost effective, that is,that optimum T-cell and antibody immunity is achieved with the minimum number of vaccinations. Combination vaccines, where an antibody-inducing subunit protein vaccine is coadministered with a T-cell-inducing poxvirus-based vaccine fulfill these requirements and induce sterile immunity to pathogen challenge.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Vaccines

Publication Date





111 - 121


Animals, Communicable Diseases, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Malaria, Poxviridae, T-Lymphocytes, Vaccines, Combined, Vaccines, Subunit, Viral Vaccines