New approaches in HIV eradication research.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the proven efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing mortality and morbidity of HIV infection, longer-term strategies are less well defined and there is renewed interest in HIV eradication. This review will describe the major obstacles that need to be overcome and the key new advances and strategies designed to achieve an HIV cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Characterization of the HIV viral reservoir over the past few years has led to a better understanding of which approaches might successfully lead to eradication. A number of approaches such as histone modification, immunotoxins, gene therapy and gene knockout strategies have resulted and have been explored initially in vitro. There has been progression from both laboratory and animal model studies, and clinical trials are now underway using new approaches such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and zinc finger nucleases. SUMMARY: Although there is currently no cure for HIV infection, there has been a resurgence of interest in the field with the development of a number of potential new approaches, some of which have entered clinical trials.