A comparison of T cell memory against the same antigen induced by virus versus intracellular bacteria.
Ochsenbein AF., Karrer U., Klenerman P., Althage A., Ciurea A., Shen H., Miller JF., Whitton JL., Hengartner H., Zinkernagel RM.
Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) memory was analyzed after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (rLM) expressing the complete nucleoprotein of LCMV (rLM-NP(actA)) or only the immunodominant epitope of H-2(d) mice (rLM-NP(118-126)). Immunization with LCMV and rLM induced a long-lived increased CTL precursor (CTLp) frequency specific for the viral (NP(118-126)) and for the bacterial (LLO(91-99)) epitope, respectively. However, after infection with rLM memory, CTLs were less protective against an intravenous LCMV challenge infection than a comparable number of LCMV-induced memory T cells. LCMV, but not recombinant Listeria-induced memory T cells were able to protect against lethal choriomeningitis by LCMV or a subsequent peripheral infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing LCMV-NP. The protective memory after viral and after rLM immunization was paralleled by evidence of LCMV but not rLM antigen persistence on day 15 and 30 after vaccination. These results document a striking difference in protective T cell memory between viral and bacterial vaccines and indicate that rapid T cell-dependent immune protection correlates with antigen persistence.