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The Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) are structural components of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues and contribute to the induction of immune responses toward infection in the gastrointestinal tract. These secondary lymphoid organs provide structural organization for efficient cellular interactions and the initiation of primary adaptive immune responses against infection. Immunity against primary infection with the enteric apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria vermiformis, depends on the rapid induction of local Th1 responses. Lymphotoxin (LT)-deficient mice which have various defects in secondary lymphoid organs were infected with E. vermiformis. The relative susceptibility of LTalpha(-/-), LTbeta(-/-), LTalpha(+/-)beta(+/-) mice and bone marrow chimeras, indicated that rapid protective Th1 responses required both PP and MLN. Moreover, the timing of Th1 induction in both MLN and gut was dependent on the presence of PP suggesting a level of cooperation between immune responses induced in these distinct lymphoid structures. The delay in Th1 induction was attributable to the delayed arrival of a broad range of dendritic cell subsets in the MLN and a substantial reduction of CD8alpha(-)CD11b(high) B220(-) dendritic cells in PP-deficient mice.

Original publication




Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





7533 - 7541


Animals, Cell Differentiation, Cell Movement, Coccidiosis, Dendritic Cells, Eimeria, Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic, Intestinal Mucosa, Kinetics, Lymph Nodes, Lymphocyte Activation, Lymphotoxin-alpha, Lymphotoxin-beta, Membrane Proteins, Mesentery, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Peyer's Patches, Th1 Cells