A phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African infants.
RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership None., Agnandji ST., Lell B., Fernandes JF., Abossolo BP., Methogo BGNO., Kabwende AL., Adegnika AA., Mordmüller B., Issifou S., Kremsner PG., Sacarlal J., Aide P., Lanaspa M., Aponte JJ., Machevo S., Acacio S., Bulo H., Sigauque B., Macete E., Alonso P., Abdulla S., Salim N., Minja R., Mpina M., Ahmed S., Ali AM., Mtoro AT., Hamad AS., Mutani P., Tanner M., Tinto H., D'Alessandro U., Sorgho H., Valea I., Bihoun B., Guiraud I., Kaboré B., Sombié O., Guiguemdé RT., Ouédraogo JB., Hamel MJ., Kariuki S., Oneko M., Odero C., Otieno K., Awino N., McMorrow M., Muturi-Kioi V., Laserson KF., Slutsker L., Otieno W., Otieno L., Otsyula N., Gondi S., Otieno A., Owira V., Oguk E., Odongo G., Woods JB., Ogutu B., Njuguna P., Chilengi R., Akoo P., Kerubo C., Maingi C., Lang T., Olotu A., Bejon P., Marsh K., Mwambingu G., Owusu-Agyei S., Asante KP., Osei-Kwakye K., Boahen O., Dosoo D., Asante I., Adjei G., Kwara E., Chandramohan D., Greenwood B., Lusingu J., Gesase S., Malabeja A., Abdul O., Mahende C., Liheluka E., Malle L., Lemnge M., Theander TG., Drakeley C., Ansong D., Agbenyega T., Adjei S., Boateng HO., Rettig T., Bawa J., Sylverken J., Sambian D., Sarfo A., Agyekum A., Martinson F., Hoffman I., Mvalo T., Kamthunzi P., Nkomo R., Tembo T., Tegha G., Tsidya M., Kilembe J., Chawinga C., Ballou WR., Cohen J., Guerra Y., Jongert E., Lapierre D., Leach A., Lievens M., Ofori-Anyinam O., Olivier A., Vekemans J., Carter T., Kaslow D., Leboulleux D., Loucq C., Radford A., Savarese B., Schellenberg D., Sillman M., Vansadia P.
BACKGROUND: The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 reduced episodes of both clinical and severe malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age by approximately 50% in an ongoing phase 3 trial. We studied infants 6 to 12 weeks of age recruited for the same trial. METHODS: We administered RTS,S/AS01 or a comparator vaccine to 6537 infants who were 6 to 12 weeks of age at the time of the first vaccination in conjunction with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines in a three-dose monthly schedule. Vaccine efficacy against the first or only episode of clinical malaria during the 12 months after vaccination, a coprimary end point, was analyzed with the use of Cox regression. Vaccine efficacy against all malaria episodes, vaccine efficacy against severe malaria, safety, and immunogenicity were also assessed. RESULTS: The incidence of the first or only episode of clinical malaria in the intention-to-treat population during the 14 months after the first dose of vaccine was 0.31 per person-year in the RTS,S/AS01 group and 0.40 per person-year in the control group, for a vaccine efficacy of 30.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.6 to 36.1). Vaccine efficacy in the per-protocol population was 31.3% (97.5% CI, 23.6 to 38.3). Vaccine efficacy against severe malaria was 26.0% (95% CI, -7.4 to 48.6) in the intention-to-treat population and 36.6% (95% CI, 4.6 to 57.7) in the per-protocol population. Serious adverse events occurred with a similar frequency in the two study groups. One month after administration of the third dose of RTS,S/AS01, 99.7% of children were positive for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies, with a geometric mean titer of 209 EU per milliliter (95% CI, 197 to 222). CONCLUSIONS: The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine coadministered with EPI vaccines provided modest protection against both clinical and severe malaria in young infants. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative; RTS,S ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00866619.).