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During primary infection, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) spreads systemically, resulting in virus replication and pathology in multiple organs. This disseminated infection is ultimately controlled, but the underlying immune defense mechanisms are unclear. Investigating the role of the cytokine IL-22 in MCMV infection, we discovered an unanticipated function for neutrophils as potent antiviral effector cells that restrict viral replication and associated pathogenesis in peripheral organs. NK-, NKT-, and T cell-secreted IL-22 orchestrated antiviral neutrophil-mediated responses via induction in stromal nonhematopoietic tissue of the neutrophil-recruiting chemokine CXCL1. The antiviral effector properties of infiltrating neutrophils were directly linked to the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Our data identify a role for neutrophils in antiviral defense, and establish a functional link between IL-22 and the control of antiviral neutrophil responses that prevents pathogenic herpesvirus infection in peripheral organs.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.chom.2014.03.003

Type

Journal article

Journal

Cell Host Microbe

Publication Date

09/04/2014

Volume

15

Pages

471 - 483

Keywords

Animals, Antiviral Agents, Chemokine CXCL1, Herpesviridae Infections, Interleukins, Killer Cells, Natural, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Muromegalovirus, Natural Killer T-Cells, Neutrophils, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand, Virus Replication