Adenoviral Vector Vaccination Induces a Conserved Program of CD8(+) T Cell Memory Differentiation in Mouse and Man.
Bolinger B., Sims S., Swadling L., O'Hara G., de Lara C., Baban D., Saghal N., Lee LN., Marchi E., Davis M., Newell E., Capone S., Folgori A., Barnes E., Klenerman P.
Following exposure to vaccines, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses develop as long-term memory pools. Vaccine strategies based on adenoviral vectors, e.g., those developed for HCV, are able to induce and sustain substantial CD8(+) T cell populations. How such populations evolve following vaccination remains to be defined at a transcriptional level. We addressed the transcriptional regulation of divergent CD8(+) T cell memory pools induced by an adenovector encoding a model antigen (beta-galactosidase). We observe transcriptional profiles that mimic those following infection with persistent pathogens, murine and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Key transcriptional hallmarks include upregulation of homing receptors and anti-apoptotic pathways, driven by conserved networks of transcription factors, including T-bet. In humans, an adenovirus vaccine induced similar CMV-like phenotypes and transcription factor regulation. These data clarify the core features of CD8(+) T cell memory following vaccination with adenovectors and indicate a conserved pathway for memory development shared with persistent herpesviruses.