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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 sequences obtained from HIV-infected persons in different risk groups in Edinburgh were studied to determine the number and origin of virus variants and patterns of virus transmission. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 12 of 14 hemophiliac patients who had been exposed to a single common batch of factor VIII had closely related gag gene sequences. Sequences from intravenous drug users and patients infected through heterosexual contact formed another distinct group, and 2 other hemophiliacs formed a third group. However, epidemiologic relationships inferred from analysis of the V3 region of the env gene were less conclusive, especially when the V3 loop was taken in isolation. This appears to be due to the length of time since infection and the action of selection, which has favored the independent appearance of similar V3 loop variants.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





45 - 53


Base Sequence, Cohort Studies, DNA, Viral, Drug Contamination, Factor VIII, Female, Gene Products, gag, Genetic Variation, HIV Antigens, HIV Envelope Protein gp120, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Hemophilia A, Humans, Male, Molecular Epidemiology, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptide Fragments, Phylogeny, Risk Factors, Scotland, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, Viral Proteins, gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus