MAIT cells contribute to protection against lethal influenza infection in vivo.
van Wilgenburg B., Loh L., Chen Z., Pediongco TJ., Wang H., Shi M., Zhao Z., Koutsakos M., Nüssing S., Sant S., Wang Z., D'Souza C., Jia X., Almeida CF., Kostenko L., Eckle SBG., Meehan BS., Kallies A., Godfrey DI., Reading PC., Corbett AJ., McCluskey J., Klenerman P., Kedzierska K., Hinks TSC.
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily-conserved, innate-like lymphocytes which are abundant in human lungs and can contribute to protection against pulmonary bacterial infection. MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections, yet it remains unknown whether MAIT cells play a significant protective or even detrimental role during viral infections in vivo. Using murine experimental challenge with two strains of influenza A virus, we show that MAIT cells accumulate and are activated early in infection, with upregulation of CD25, CD69 and Granzyme B, peaking at 5 days post-infection. Activation is modulated via cytokines independently of MR1. MAIT cell-deficient MR1-/- mice show enhanced weight loss and mortality to severe (H1N1) influenza. This is ameliorated by prior adoptive transfer of pulmonary MAIT cells in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient RAG2-/-γC-/- mice. Thus, MAIT cells contribute to protection during respiratory viral infections, and constitute a potential target for therapeutic manipulation.