A review of the spectrum of clinical ocular fundus findings in P. falciparum malaria in African children with a proposed classification and grading system.
Lewallen S., Harding SP., Ajewole J., Schulenburg WE., Molyneux ME., Marsh K., Usen S., White NJ., Taylor TE.
Ocular fundus pathology in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is common and has prognostic significance. We have made a collaborative effort to document the ocular features in several populations. Based on examination of 735 patients in Malawi, Kenya and The Gambia by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy with dilated pupils, we have determined that the 5 distinct clinical features (in order of frequency) include retinal whitening, haemorrhages, unique vessel abnormalities, papilloedema, and cotton wool spots. Photographs and descriptions of these are presented, along with a proposed grading scheme.